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Pump Friction Loss - Best News
Peugeot has announced plans to bring the 208 HYbrid Air 2L concept to next month's Paris Motor Show.
The original 208 HYbrid FE concept was unveiled last year at the Geneva Motor Show and now Peugeot is ready to present an evolution based on the same three-door 208 but featuring a wide array of changes. While the model upon which is based weighs 960 kg, this one has gone through a 100 kg diet as a result of a more extensive use of aluminum and carbon composites.
The standard car is equipped with a three-cylinder 1.2-liter Puretech 82 gasoline engine and a five-speed manual gearbox but the concept uses a hybrid drivetrain featuring a mix of petrol and compressed air. It encompasses a compressed air tank below the trunk, a low-pressure tank near the rear axle (acting as an expansion chamber) and a hydraulic system with a motor and a pump in the engine bay.
The aforementioned hydraulic system has a specially developed epicyclic transmission to provide the right balance between the two energy sources and also offers automatic shifting. Peugeot says the concept can be driven solely on compressed air when "Air" mode is selected while in "Petrol" mode it runs only on the gasoline engine. There's also a "Combined" mode in which the vehicle draws its power from the two energy sources.
Pump Friction Loss - Recent Articles
Crane TP 410 provides methods to determine the K values for various standard fittings. A turbulent friction factor (fT) is used for doing so and the figures are tabulated for various pipe diameters in the appendix A26. The figures have been determined based on new steel.
Can these figures be applied for materials other than steel piping please?
The system I am looking at consists of polypropylene (PP) piping. If I calculate fT for PP piping (using method described here: http://www.pumpfunda...com/help16.html
Taking into account the absolute roughness for PP piping, the friction factor is reduced to approximately half vs steel piping. The overall effect on the end calculation result (for my system) is a difference in flow capacity of ~5%, this would obviously be greater if the proportion to fittings vs straight pipe was greater.
I have also checked my hand-calculation using AFT Fathom software and checked the help files within the software package to determine the methodology behind the calculations. The software appears to apply the Crane values for fT for all piping material types....
While the estimates vary depending on whom you speak to, about 20,000 additional people stream into town from all over the region, approximately tripling the town's usual head count. Bursting to the seams, almost literally Importantly, I also pay
All engine manufacturers have reported similar problems with the higher-temperature fuel leaving varnish on injectors and causing mileage losses. Lubricity provides friction reduction, which extends the life of the fuel pump and reduces down time.
Consolidated loss was $7.7 million and diluted loss per share was $0.05 compared to profit of $115 million, diluted profit per share of $0.78 for the same period in 2011. Fourth quarter revenue in Canada decreased by 41% The joint business
Earnings were $32.4 million or $0.35 per share for the quarter, compared with a loss of $529 million or $5.68 per share in the comparable period of last year. Revenue rose 9 percent to $554.3 million. Organic revenue increased 7 ITT makes
Upgrades to the drivetrain include reduced internal friction for the motor and a locally built lithium-ion battery, now offered with extended warranty cover which replaces or repairs units that have suffered a large loss of capacity. Subtle aerodynamic